An introduction to the history of globalization

Globalization is commonly thought of as a new phenomenon, but contact between diverse individuals is not new. It began when prehistoric tribes settled and were able to outmuscle wandering tribes.

An introduction to the history of globalization

Archaic globalization Perhaps the extreme proponent of a deep historical origin for globalization was Andre Gunder Frankan economist associated with dependency theory.

Frank argued that a form of globalization has been in existence since the rise of trade links between Sumer and the Indus Valley Civilization in the third millennium BC [2] Critics of this idea contend that it rests upon an over-broad definition of globalization.

Friedman divides the history of globalization into three periods: He states that Globalization 1. Territorial expansion by our ancestors to all five continents was a critical component in establishing globalization.

However, globalization failed to accelerate due to lack of long distance interaction and technology. Trade was widespread during that period, and it is the first time the idea of a cosmopolitan culture from Greek "Cosmopolis", meaning "world city" emerged.

Others have perceived an early form of globalization in the trade links between the Roman Empirethe Parthian Empireand the Han Dynasty. The increasing articulation of commercial links between these powers inspired the development of the Silk Roadwhich started in western China, reached the boundaries of the Parthian empire, and continued onwards towards Rome.

Globally significant crops such as sugar and cotton became widely cultivated across the Muslim world in this period, while the necessity of learning Arabic and completing the Hajj created a cosmopolitan culture. This permitted travelers and missionaries such as Marco Polo to journey successfully and profitably from one end of Eurasia to the other.

The Pax Mongolica of the thirteenth century had several other notable globalizing effects. It witnessed the creation of the first international postal serviceas well as the rapid transmission of epidemic diseases such as bubonic plague across the newly unified regions of Central Asia. Up to the sixteenth century, however, even the largest systems of international exchange were limited to the Old World.

Proto-globalization The next phase is known as proto-globalization. It was characterized by the rise of maritime European empires, in the 16th and 17th centuries, first the Portuguese and Spanish Empiresand later the Dutch and British Empires.

In the 17th century, globalization became also a private business phenomenon when chartered companies like British East India Company founded inoften described as the first multinational corporationas well as the Dutch East India Company founded in were established.

The Age of Discovery brought a broad change in globalization, being the first period in which Eurasia and Africa engaged in substantial cultural, material and biologic exchange with the New World.

It began in the late 15th century, when the two Kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula — Portugal and Castile — sent the first exploratory voyages around the Cape of Good Hope and to the Americas"discovered" in by Christopher Columbus.

Shortly before the turn of the 16th century, Portuguese started establishing trading posts factories from Africa to Asia and Brazil, to deal with the trade of local products like slavesgoldspices and timberintroducing an international business center under a royal monopoly, the House of India.

It was one of the most significant global events concerning ecologyagricultureand culture in history. The 19th century witnessed the advent of globalization approaching its modern form.

Industrialization allowed cheap production of household items using economies of scale ,[ citation needed ] while rapid population growth created sustained demand for commodities. Globalization in this period was decisively shaped by nineteenth-century imperialism.

After the First and Second Opium Warswhich opened up China to foreign trade, and the completion of the British conquest of India, the vast populations of these regions became ready consumers of European exports.

It was in this period that areas of sub-Saharan Africa and the Pacific islands were incorporated into the world system. Meanwhile, the conquest of new parts of the globe, notably sub-Saharan Africa, by Europeans yielded valuable natural resources such as rubberdiamonds and coal and helped fuel trade and investment between the European imperial powers, their colonies, and the United States.

Militarism and imperialism of racial and cultural rivalries were little more than the amusements of his daily newspaper.

What an extraordinary episode in the economic progress of man was that age which came to an end in August Between the globalization in the 19 th and in the 20th there are significant differences. There are two main points on which the differences can be seen.

One point is the global trade in this centuries as well as the capital, investment and the economy. Global Trade The global trade in the 20th century shows a higher share of trade in merchant production, a growth of the trade in services and the rise of production and trade by multinational firms.

The production of merchant goods in the 20th century largely decreased from the levels seen in the 19th century.All customers get FREE Shipping on orders over $25 shipped by Amazon.

Show results for. Books. Introduction Globalization is an ongoing process integrating economies, industries, markets, cultures, societies and policies around the world.

Whether globalization is good or bad is a question that people around the globe are constantly debating over. Presenting globalization in accessible language as a multifaceted process encompassing global, regional, and local aspects of social life, this VSI looks at its causes and effects, examines whether it is a new phenomenon, and explores the question of whether, ultimately, globalization is a good or a bad thing.

Globalization is an historical process that began with the first movement of people out of Africa into other parts of the world.

An introduction to the history of globalization

Traveling short or long distances, migrants, merchants and others have delivered their ideas, customs and products to new lands.

1. Globalization: a contested concept; 2.

An introduction to the history of globalization

Globalization and history: is globalization a new phenomenon? 3.

Manfred Steger

The economic dimension of globalization; 4. The political dimension of globalization; 5. The cultural dimension of globalization; 6.

The ecological dimension of globalization; 7. Thomas L. Friedman divides the history of globalization into three periods: Globalization (–), Globalization (–) and Globalization (–present).

He states that Globalization involved the globalization of countries, Globalization involved the globalization of companies and Globalization involves the globalization of individuals.

Globalization and history: is globalization a new phenomenon? - Very Short Introductions