The Islamic revolution in the western Sudan Dominance of Tuareg and Amazigh tribes The Moroccan occupation of the Niger Bend in meant that the domination of the western Sudan by Mande or Mande-inspired empires— GhanaMaliSonghai —which had persisted for at least five centuries, was at last ended. The Songhai kings were pushed southeast into their original homeland of Dendi, farther down the Niger close to Borgu, and Mande political power was limited to the so-called Bambara —i. In and around the Niger Bend itself, the long-term effect of the Moroccan conquest was to open up the country to the Tuareg and Arabized Amazigh tribes of the Saharan fringes.
The Rise of Monarchies: France, England, and Spain One of the most significant developments in the three centuries leading up to the Renaissance period was the collapse of feudalism.
In the medieval period, the countries were often bitter enemies, with both nations' monarchs claiming control over France. The Hundred Years' War stretched from to resulting in French victory. Mar 31, · The Rise of the Nation-State. Updated on May 1, William R Bowen Jr. territory began to consolidate as the merchant classes desired powerful rulers that could protect them and their wares as the traveled from one destination to the next. and the rise of a bourgeoisie class that set the stage for the rise of powerful monarchs and Reviews: 3. The French crown was able to consolidate power as a "new monarchy" following the Hundred Years' War ( to ). - The "military revolution" began during the Years War strengthened king's military at the expense of the nobility.
This social and economic system had emerged during the ninth century in the Carolingian Empire pronounced care-eh-LIN-jee-ehnwhich was centered in the region that is now France.
See "Feudalism" in Chapter 1. Eventually feudalism a term derived from the medieval Latin word feudum, meaning "fee" spread throughout Europe and served as a unifying institution for all aspects of life. Under feudalism, which was based on an agricultural economy, distinct social classes were dependent on one another through a complex system of pledging loyalty in exchange for goods and services.
At the top were kings, who owned the land. Beneath them were lords noblemen and clergymen church officialswho were granted tracts of land called fiefs pronounced feefs by the king. Below the lords were vassals knightswho held smaller amounts of land awarded to them by lords.
At the bottom were serfs peasantswho farmed the fiefs but were not given land of their own. Land occupied by churches, monasteries houses for men called monks, who dedicated themselves to the How did overseas monarchs help consolidate lifeand other religious establishments of the Roman Catholic Church were also considered fiefs.
Feudalism began to decline in the eleventh century with the rise of capitalism, an economy based on investing money and earning profits from business ventures. Capitalism is considered one of the major contributions of the Renaissance. Under feudalism there were few cities, and most communities consisted of small towns and rural areas clustered around castles, which served as centers of government and social life see "Castle as center of community" in Chapter 1.
Capitalism brought about the rise of cities, which were built as hubs in a network of trade routes throughout Europe. The cities replaced fiefs as population centers.
The growth of the new economy posed threats to the feudal system. Serfs started escaping to urban areas in search of work. A middle class, consisting of merchants and bankers, was taking power away from noblemen. Although feudalism had been replaced by a new economic system, social and political structures were still based on the fief.
When the Renaissance began in the mid-fourteenth century in Italy, Europe was divided into hundreds of independent states, each with its own laws and customs. The result was absolute chaos, as leaders of states vied for more power and larger territories.
In the south, the Italian peninsula was turned into a battleground. Numerous wealthy city-states competed for trade rights around the Adriatic and Mediterranean Seas, and the Italian Wars a conflict between France and Spain for control in Italy raged for sixty-four years see " Italian Wars dominate Renaissance" in Chapter 2.
As the Renaissance moved north of Italy in the fifteenth century, northern and central Europe was even more fragmented.
The power of the Holy Roman Empire had dwindled, and princes noblemen who ruled states —particularly in the more than two hundred principalities of Germany—were seeking independence.
At the same time religious reformers, first in Germany and then in the Netherlands and Scandinavia, were leading a movement against the practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Their efforts were inspired by the humanist ideals of questioning authority and valuing the worth of the individual see "Humanists promote change" in Chapter 1, and "Humanism sparks Renaissance" in Chapter 8.
This reform movement resulted in the revolution known as the Protestant Reformation, which eventually spread throughout Europe. Monarchs kings and queen with supreme rule in France, England, and Spain responded to the chaotic situation in Europe by consolidating their power.
A significant development in all three of these monarchies was the rise of nationalism, or pride in and loyalty to one's homeland, which was a distinctive feature of the Renaissance period.
They established a line of strong monarchs that lasted for eight hundred years and elevated France to the status of a major power. Although England was exhausted by the long conflict with France, the Tudor monarchs began a new dynasty after emerging victorious from the War of the Roses, a struggle between two families for the throne of England.
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Tudors reigned over the English Renaissance. Their era produced one of the greatest cultures in the world and led to the creation of the British Empire in later centuries.
In Spain, the monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella of Castile laid the foundation for an immense empire by uniting several independent provinces. It also extended south and west to include possessions in North Africa and the Americas. France After the death of Charlemagne pronounced SHAR-leh-main; —; ruled —14the great Frankish king, the vast Carolingian Empire broke up and the title of emperor was passed to German rulers in the eastern part of Europe.
The region that later became known as Normandy was turned over to the Northmen in by Charles III —; ruled — At the end of the tenth century, Hugh Capet c.How did overseas expansion help European monarchs consolidate their power in the early modern state ( Jared Mitchell, Word Count: words Europe was dominated by monarchies in the early Modern state, especially those lead by King Charles I of Spain, Kings Henry IV, Louis XII and Louis XIII of France, and Kings James I and Charles.
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3 things louis xi did to help france. united france; strengthened economy; laid foundations for royal absolutism what was the first nation to use its resources to expand overseas? portugal. who did ferdinand marry. Comments. Brother Nathanael January 18, @ pm. Dear Real Zionist News Family - Much going on.
First of all, this article, “Did Jews Kill General Patton?” took 2 weeks of intensive research, then text, editing, MORE editing, more additions, photo hunts, montaging, etc.
to reach the finished product above. The Islamic revolution in the western Sudan Dominance of Tuareg and Amazigh tribes. The Moroccan occupation of the Niger Bend in meant that the domination of the western Sudan by Mande or Mande-inspired empires—Ghana, Mali, Songhai—which had persisted for at least five centuries, was at last ended.
The Songhai kings were pushed .
English noblewoman Lady Jane Grey is one of the most romanticized monarchs of Tudor England. Her short, nine-day rule was an unsuccessful attempt to maintain Protestant rule.
This challenge cost. How did monarchs use their power and what did they do to increase it? They built centralized governments to control their nations. They also used overseas exploration to gain colonies and to increase their wealth and power.