Well, what I got was nothing short of amazing. It appears that I have some incredibly smart readers with plenty of know-how to share.
Advertisement During the height of the space race in the s, legend has it, NASA scientists realized that pens could not function in space.
They needed to figure out another way for the astronauts to write things down. So they spent years and millions of taxpayer dollars to develop a pen that could put ink to paper without gravity. But their crafty Soviet counterparts, so the story goes, simply handed their cosmonauts pencils.
This tale with its message of simplicity and thrift--not to mention a failure of common sense in a bureaucracy--floats around the Internet, hopping from in-box to in-box, and even surfaced during a episode of the West Wing. But, alas, it is just a myth.
When these prices became public, there was an outcry and NASA scrambled to find something cheaper for the astronauts to use. Pencils may not have been the best choice anyway. The tips flaked and broke off, drifting in microgravity where they could potentially harm an astronaut or equipment.
And pencils are flammable--a quality NASA wanted to avoid in onboard objects after the Apollo 1 fire. None of this investment money came from NASA's coffers--the agency only became involved after the pen was dreamed into existence.
In Fisher patented a pen that could write upside-down, in frigid or roasting conditions down to minus 50 degrees Fahrenheit or up to degrees Fand even underwater or in other liquids.
If too hot, though, the ink turned green instead of its normal blue. Because of the earlier mechanical pencil fiasco, NASA was hesitant. But, after testing the space pen intensively, the agency decided to use it on spaceflights beginning in Unlike most ballpoint pens, Fisher's pen does not rely on gravity to get the ink flowing.
The cartridge is instead pressurized with nitrogen at 35 pounds per square inch. This pressure pushes the ink toward the tungsten carbide ball at the pen's tip. The ink, too, differs from that of other pens.
Fisher used ink that stays a gellike solid until the movement of the ballpoint turns it into a fluid. The pressurized nitrogen also prevents air from mixing with the ink so it cannot evaporate or oxidize. A year later, the Soviet Union ordered pens and 1, ink cartridges to use on their Soyuz space missions, said the United Press International.
The space pen's mark on the Apollo program was not limited to facilitating writing in microgravity. According to the Fisher Space Pen Company, the Apollo 11 astronauts also used the pen to fix a broken arming switch, enabling their return to Earth.
Since the late s American astronauts and Russian cosmonauts have used Fisher's pens. In fact, Fisher has created a whole line of space pens.This is what a successful digital transformation looks like, based on research into the characteristics of enterprises that have succeeded with transformations in real life.
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Why most mission statements are dumb — and how to write one that isn’t.
|2 Easy Ways to Write a Good Newsletter - wikiHow||By Nancy Lublin 3 minute Read Here are four mission statements.|
A mission statement is a key tool that can be as important as your business grupobittia.com captures, in a few succinct sentences, the essence of your business's goals and the philosophies underlying them.